The aim of clinical-psychological treatment or counseling psychology is to enable a person to use their diverse competencies and resources independently in the areas of behavior that are currently being experienced as problematic.
Modern behavioral therapy is a form of psychotherapy that offers a tailor-made treatment to everyone, while the active participation of the client is essential. Behavioral therapy is characterized by its multifaceted nature, its scientific nature – originally based on psychological laws of learning – and its proven effectiveness. The behavioral therapy can be understood as a kind of “self-help“, it is transparent – that is, that in behavior therapy, the client always knows what is happening in the therapeutic process and why. It is actively involved in the therapeutic process and thus contributes to the success of therapy.
- Anxiety, Phobia, Panic
What Are Mental Disorders And Somatic Diseases?
Every person is constantly experiencing stresses that temporarily affect his or her quality of life. Difficulties in the workplace or in the relationship, loss experiences, educational problems and associated mood swings are more the rule than the exception.
In the case of a large proportion of the persons under stress, these difficulties remain within a tolerable limits. These people manage to cope with the stresses and restore well-being. So we all experience again and again depressions, depressed moods, which for the majority of people are not very deep or not very long-lasting.
However, some of the affected persons are overburdened by excessive burdens. The coping capacity of a person is no longer sufficient to cope with the difficulties. Stress does not automatically lead to mental symptoms such as depression or anxiety. Only in the case of over-demand can there be visible effects. Mental disorders can be the result.
Mental disorders are referred to as such only when the person or the environment is clearly restricted by the disorder in their social, professional and private lives.
The main areas of application are for clinical-psychological treatment and counseling, and behavior therapy in the treatment of anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, eating disorders, personality disorders, addiction disorders (alcohol, drugs, medication, gambling), psychosis, organic brain disorders in the supportive treatment of physical diseases (e.g., chronic pain).
Clinical-psychological treatment usually assumes on a preliminary diagnostic clarification (clinical-psychological diagnosis). It can take place in different settings and is oriented to empirically based explanatory approaches and models of the entire psychology. Institutional support (e.g., biofeedback, computer-aided cognitive training) and psycho-educational approaches that have motivational, supportive, and practicing functions are as important as the integrative use of various psychological intervention techniques that can be used in counseling, treatment, and psychotherapy.
The field of clinical-psychological treatment methods is a wide range of intervention methods. It should be noted above all that the clinical-psychological treatment deals with both mental disorders and somatic diseases.
The clinical-psychological treatment methods are based on six characteristic features (Baumann and Perrez, 2000):
- Choice of means: The typical clinical-psychological means of influencing behavior include conversation, exercise and interpersonal relationship.
- Treatment functions: The most important function of clinical-psychological treatment is the promotion of health, prevention, therapy, and rehabilitation.
- Goal orientation: The concrete formulation of goals form the basis for the selection of the right method of clinical-psychological treatment and form the basis for the development of structurally structured and goal-oriented intervention processes.
- Theoretical Foundation: The clinical-psychological treatment fulfilled the criteria in terms of theories, hypotheses, empirical research methods, and empirical findings.
- Evaluation: The efficacy of clinically-psychological treatment can be empirically tested to make it ethically and scientifically acceptable.
- Professional Action:The clinical-psychological intervention processes are carried out by professionally trained experts. The clinical-psychological treatment represents an active exchange process between client and therapist with regard to the content of the planning of the problem solution and behavior change as well as the examination of the efficiency and its effects on the everyday situation. Particularly noteworthy is the resource orientation of the clinical-psychological treatment
Clinical Vs Counseling Psychology
Counseling Psychology is the mediation of psychological expertise, the clarification based on psychological models and psychological background , for example, with regard to disorders, maintaining conditions of mental disorders, possibilities for change and also with regard to possible approaches of Clinical – Counseling and psychotherapeutic treatment. Counseling Psychology can have different objectives and use different counseling techniques – information mediation, solution-oriented counseling, etc.
Within the scope of clinical and Counseling Psychology, the client should be given assistance in changing oneself and certain aspects of their life, not universal advice with a guarantee of success.
The consultant’s skill is thus to stimulate and inspire the client in his thinking processes, to see possibilities for change, and to initiate change processes with the help of the promoted self-efficacy, but also to teach him intervention strategies that bring him closer to his goal and enable a problem solution. Ultimately, it is about strengthening the self-efficacy of the person seeking advice.
Modern behavioral therapy is a form of psychotherapy that is used to treat clients with a variety of problems. The tailor-made therapy for each client is planned and carried out by behavioral therapists with great sensitivity, flexibility, and care on the basis of extensive expertise, while the active cooperation of the client is essential. Behavioral therapy is characterized by its complexity, its scientific nature and the effectiveness demonstrated by many studies.
The overall goal of the therapy is the improvement and stabilization of autonomy. Clients should become their own experts over the long term: for an existing problem, to know where it comes from, what factors sustain it and how it can be handled or what can be done about it.
Behavioral therapy sees itself as a kind of “self-help”, it is transparent – that is, patients are informed about the procedure, in the center remains the jointly developed therapy goal.
The recognition of problems and their conditions is necessary, but only when those affected are able to implement the desired changes in their everyday actions (and attitudes), the goal is really achieved. The duration of treatment is by no means fixed and varies from a few sessions to several years, depending on the problem.
Methods of behavioral therapy
In addition to the basic skills of conversation, motivation, and relationship, the therapist also has the opportunity to choose from a carefully evaluated range of therapy methods.
- Cognitive methods (change of dysfunctional cognitions, problem-solving training, etc.)
- Confrontation procedure (various anxiety management procedures)
- Euthymia therapy – pleasure training
- Relaxation techniques
- Imagination (work with mental images)
- Communication training
- Training social competence