With the growing popularity of the dramatic series that involve solving crimes, prosecuting criminals, or trying to get in their minds to take them one step further, we believe we are familiar with the term criminology, claiming that it is a science whose only purpose is to solve the perpetrated crime.
And while a criminal investigation is one of its functions, it should be noted that criminology is not limited exclusively to this field but has a wide possibility of being used and applied for the benefit of society.
What Is Criminology?
It was Rafaelle Garofalo, Italian jurist, who found for the first time the term criminology, whose etymological meaning derives from the Latin criminis (crime/crime) and the Greek logos (treaty or study) so its purest definition is “study of crime.” But to attribute this definition to the criminological task would be too vague.
Criminology is an intermediary and multidisciplinary science whose purpose is to study, analysis, intervene, and prevent both criminality and crime.
Therefore, the object of study of criminology would be antisocial behavior, those behaviors that deviate from what is generally accepted by society and even threaten the integrity of community, based on the premise that man is a biopsychosocial being and, therefore, the crime as human behavior must be explained as a phenomenon that covers biological, psychological and sociological aspects.
Applications, And Functions Of Criminology
While criminology can indeed be applied to criminal investigation processes and assistance to the justice system such as the preparation of expert reports, survey, packaging and study of indicia, the issuance of opinions, criminal profiling, social readaptation, prison treatment among others, it is essential to clarify that these tasks correspond only to the work of the criminologist in the public sphere.
On the other hand, since crime is a social, global, and complex phenomenon, the private sector also demands its work. Companies such as banks and insurers solicit experts in criminology to investigate suspicious banking movements to identify if some suspicious transactions are being obtained or used for illicit purposes such as financing terrorism or money laundering.
Demand And Labor Field Of The Criminologist
In this present in which, unfortunately, it seems that criminality is increasing, the need for criminologists has been increasing, especially in countries where organized crime has gained ground such as Mexico, Colombia, Chile, etc.
Private companies are also requesting criminology experts to prevent crimes or disasters that put their assets and their clients at risk. The work that the criminologist of the 21st century can carry out is extensive and, as has become clear, not only to engage in forensic investigation.
Prosecutors and justice departments, research agencies, social reintegration centers, public ministries, banks, insurers, law firms, securities transfer companies, or private consultancy, etc. are some examples where the job opportunity is presented to the criminologist.